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13 August 2022
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Buterin: Ethereum 2.0 will scale to 100,000 TPS in phase 1

  • According to Ethereum inventor Vitalik Buterin, the rollup technology will be the dominant scaling model in the first years of Ethereum 2.0.
  • In phase 1 of Ethereum 2.0, a transaction rate of up to 100,000 TPS could be reached using rollups.

The inventor of Ethereum, Vitalik Buterin, recently gave an update on the scaling of the Ethereum 2.0 network. Although an exact release date is still not set, Buterin said that he has precise ideas about how Ethereum 2.0 will scale in the first years.

While Buterin emphasized in the past that Ethereum can process over one million transactions per second (TPS) with sharding, rollups will be the dominant scaling model in the first years of Ethereum 2.0. While currently (Ethereum 1.0) transaction rates of up to 3,000 TPS could be achieved with the rollup technology, phase 1 of Ethereum 2.0 could enable up to 100,000 TPS:

ETH2 scaling for data will be available before ETH2 scaling for general computation. This implies that rollups will be the dominant scaling paradigm for at least a couple of years: first ~2-3k TPS with eth1 as data layer, then ~100k TPS with eth2 (phase 1). Adjust accordingly.

In response to Vitalik Buterin tweet, Daniel Larimer, CTO of Block.One, the development company behind the cryptocurrency EOS and the former “Ethereum killer”, asked how many sequentially dependent transactions per second Ethereum could actually process. To this, Buterin replied that potentially thousands of transactions could be processed in sequence:

Actually rollups could potentially go up into the thousands or more on that dimension too. Strangely enough, shards don’t need to talk to each other synchronously to be able to have a synchronous rollup that combines the shards’ scalability.

The ETH co-founder also pointed out that the rollup technology could already play a major role in the scaling of Ethereum 1.0 today. With regard to the currently acute problem of high gas fees and network congestion, Buterin said that for normal value transfers, rollups should be implemented. This would allow more complex applications using smart contracts to make up the bulk of the base chain transactions and significantly reduce gas fees.

Anyone who’s just moving ETH / ERC20 / ERC721 tokens around should be looking at how to get onto a rollup today. Gasprices on base chain would probably fall greatly if it was only used for the more complex stuff.

In a subsequent tweet, Buterin also mentioned projects that already provide and develop the rollup technology: zkSync, Loopring, Fuel Labs, Optimism, StarkWare. As CNF reported, Loopring presented a crypto alternative to PayPal in early June, which is based on ZKRollups and could solve Ethereum’s current network congestion problem. Loopring Pay enables the value transfer of ETH and ERC20 tokens in near real-time and at a fee of only 0.00006 USD per transaction.

Penultimate testnet launched before the launch of Ethereum 2.0

While Buterin has discussed the scalability, the launch of ETH 2.0 is approaching. The day before yesterday a new milestone was reached with the launch of the Altona testnet with four different clients: Prysmatic Labs, Sigma Prime, Nimbus and PegaSys.

If Altona does not cause any major problems, only one more test network will be required and then the Ethereum 2.0 mainnet will be introduced. Since, according to earlier statements by the core developers, a testnet has to prove itself for at least 3 months, the start of phase 0 is not expected before the end of the year.

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